Friday, November 22, 2013

Windows 8.1 CD DVD Drive not visible in File Manager

How to: Windows 8.1 CD Drive, DVD Drive not visible in File Manager.

After installing Windows 8.0, Windows 8.1, the CD/DVD drive does not appear in My Computer, FileManager, Windows Explorer or in the Control Panel under devices.  CD or DVD drive is missing or not recognized by Windows or other programs.  ...and yet the CD worked during the install.

Other Symptoms:
Error:  The device is not working properly because Windows cannot load the drivers required for this device (Code 31).

Error:  A driver for this device was not required, and has been disabled (Code 32 or Code 31).

Error:  Code 19,  Code 39, "Windows successfully loaded the device driver for this hardware but cannot find the hardware device (Code 41).

Unknown.  But symptoms appear if you upgrade the Operating System (Windows 8.0 to 8.1); installed a new operating system; possibly un-installed Microsoft Digital Image.


Microsoft suggests 5 different solutions, but this is the one that has worked for me on multiple machines.

Synopsis - Add this DWord32 Registry Key and Value: 

\Controller0\EnumDevice1 = 1 (Dword32)

1.  Confirm you are logged into the Windows Desktop as an Administrator  (you cannot be a standard user for these steps).

2.  Press Windows Logo Key + R on keyboard.
Type "Regedit"  (no quotes); press Enter.

Alternately, from the Windows 8 Start Page, click the background, click the down-arrow-icon on lower-left; type the word "Regedit".  Run this program.

Alternately, using Windows Explorer, locate c:\Windows\regedit.exe.  Other-mouse-click and choose "Run as administrator"
3.Tunnel to this registry key:


4.  Right-click "atapi",

Select "New, Key"
Type "Controller0"   (Controller-zero, no quotes; all one word)

5.  On detail side, right-click the new Controller0 key,

Select "New", DWord32
Type "EnumDevice1"  (no quotes, no spaces, number-one); press Enter

Right-click EnumDevice1, click Modify
Type 1 (one) in the value box, "Hexidecimal"

Click for larger view

6.  Close the Registry Editor, Restart the computer


Saturday, November 9, 2013

Windows 8.1 Upgrade not in Windows Store

How to: Windows 8.1 Upgrade not available in the Windows App Store
How to: Windows Update hangs - Downloading at 0%
How to: An Account with administrator privileges

I ran into a variety of problems as I tried to upgrade a Windows 8.0 machine to Windows 8.1.  Here were the steps needed to resolve each issue.  

Windows 8.0 users can upgrade to 8.1 for free.
Unfortunately, the upgrade is only available on the Windows App Store.  This means you cannot use a local machine account to install and you must painfully download the upgrade for each machine (you cannot easily download the upgrade one time and distribute to multiple machines).

The Windows Store does not show any "Updates".  

The Windows Store does not show any of your apps for update; no locally-installed updates are listed.
The upper-left corner of the Windows Store does not show e.g. "Updates (21)".
The Windows 8.1 "Update Windows" is not visible in the App Store.

The Windows App Store will not show updates until the underlying Windows Update features (e.g. Windows Installer) is patched with the latest bug fixes. You will find this problem is especially true if you restored an older image while rebuilding a machine. 

1.  Open the Windows Control Panel, select "Windows Update"
2.  Manually click "Check for Updates"
3.  Install all important updates and reboot the computer when done.

The Store should show "Update to Windows 8.1 for Free" as an available install.  If you have a Volume License, MSDN or Technet license, or a preview edition of Windows 8, the App Store install method will not work.  See the end of this article for other details.

If the update is still not visible, confirm you are logged in with a Windows Live account (and not a Local account).  Most people have a Live Account.  For details on how to tell, see this section: "You need an Administrator account...", below. 

Windows Update Hangs - downloading updates stays at 0%

While trying to apply your first round of Windows Updates, the update begins but makes no progress, remaining at 0% - Installing Updates...., with no apparent activity.

1.  Wait a respectable amount of time - say 5 or 10 minutes, looking for a %-status change, then
2.  Click Stop Installation (Cancel) on the download.
3.  Reboot the workstation gracefully.
4.  Re-open the Control Panel, select Windows Update and click "Check for Updates" again.  The update should proceed normally.  I have no explanation on why this needs to be done on a first-time load of Windows Update.  This is especially true on a new PC or a newly-imaged PC.

Once updated, reboot the workstation, even if it does not prompt.

Expected Results: 
On the second attempt, the update should begin downloading and installing. 

If the install hangs at some other percentage, note if it is installing the .dot-net framework 4.5, or 4.5.  These take a long time to download and install -- often taking 30 to 45 minutes.  Be patient.

Next Step:  Once updated and patched, open the Windows App Store and look for the Windows 8.1 Update; it should be available.

You need to use an account with Administrator Privileges in order to install.

When installing the Windows 8.1 Update from the Windows App Store, you may be prompted with a message "use an account with Administrator privileges in order to install."

Solution 1:
Confirm your User Account has Administrator rights.

Likely, the machine has multiple users who can login to the workstation.  By default new user accounts created after the first Windows install are "standard," not administrator accounts.

1.  From the top-right of the Start Menu, click your account name and change the login to the person with administrative rights, typically the person who first booted or installed the machine.  Use this account to open the Windows Store and Install Windows 8.1.

Note:  If your account is already an Administrative account, see Solution 2, below.

Alternately, use these steps to promote your current account to an administrator:

1.  Open the Control Panel*, select "User Accounts".

2.  In your account, click "Change your account type"  (a shield-icon-menu); you will be prompted for the administrator's credentials, the next step.

3. On the security screen, choose the administrator account (typically the account used when the workstation was first booted or first installed).  Type the credentials; this will promote your standard user-id to an administrator.

4.  Important: After typing the administrator's password and setting Administrative rights, gracefully reboot the workstation before attempting to run the Windows App Store install.  The promoted account does not take effect until that user logs out and back in again and a reset seems to give better results.

Next Steps:
Once your account has been promoted to Administrator, or once you have logged in with an Administrator's login, open the Windows App Store and launch the Windows 8.1 upgrade again.

*Opening the Control Panel
Open the right-edge Charms menu, choose "Settings, Control Panel", or follow these steps to place the Control Panel on the Start Menu.

In Windows 8.0, go to the Start Screen.  In an area below the tiles, "other-mouse-click" the background" and choose "All Apps".  Type the word "control".   Other-mouse-click the Control Panel tile and choose "Pin to Start".  The Control Panel is now on your Start Menu.  Press Esc to dismiss the All Programs Icon screen.

In Windows 8.1, go to the Start Screen; Click on the background.  In the lower-left, click the down-arrow to expose all icons.  Type the word "control".  Other-mouse-click the Control Panel tile and choose "Pin to Start"

Note:  If a non-Windows Live account is promoted to Administrator, it will still fail to install the Windows 8.1 upgrade.  See Solution 2.

Solution 2:

Use this solution if Solution 1 does not work.  The issue:  Only Microsoft Live Accounts can use the Windows App Store.  Secondly, the computer must be registered as a "Trusted Computer" from Windows Live.  Details, below.

Background:  If the PC's login account is a "local account" (and not a Microsoft/Microsoft Live account), you will not be able to use the AppStore and you will not be able to download and install Windows 8.1.  To see if your PC is a Local account, open the Charms menu, select "Change PC Settings" (bottom), select Accounts, then "Your Account".  Look under your UserName.  If it says "Disconnect" -- this is a Windows Live account; otherwise, it is a Local account.

Many People, when starting up a new PC, create a Windows Live account without realizing it and Solution 1 will have worked.  But if you created a "fake" Windows Live account (with a bad phone number and fake email), or never created a Windows Live account, you will not be able to install from the App Store.  These steps will work around this issue.

Decision:  Do you already have a Windows Live account, perhaps built on another PC?

If yes, do these next steps.  If not, follow the "Live Account Does Not Exist" steps:

Steps: A Live Account Exists:
A Windows Live account, such as one used to install another PC, or as a second account on this PC, can be used to install Windows 8.1. 

Check to see if you have a second login for this machine:
a.  From the main Start Screen, click the Profile-icon in the top-right. 
b. Log out and login as the Windows Live profile (this will show up as a second user who can login and is likely the account used to install and build this PC.  If a second account does not exist, see the next set of steps.
c. If the second account exists, use that account to login, then install Windows 8.1. 

If no second Login, but you have a Windows Live Account from another machine:
If you do not have a second account, but you have a Windows Live account, perhaps used on another PC or laptop, then follow these steps to enable that account on this PC.

- From your Local Administrator's account, open Windows Control Panel, "Users."

- Create a new user account on this PC (steps not detailed here), and use the Windows Live account to establish its credentials.  Note: As you build the account, nothing will happen on the screen; that account will not become active until used at least one time, as documented next.

- Important:  Return to this User's Control Panel settings "Change the account type" in order to 'promote' this user to Administrator.  See the top of this article for illustrated steps.

- Log out from the Local account and Login as the new Windows Live user.  This builds the profile and activates the account.

- Open the Charms, Settings menu.  Choose Change PC Settings" (the link at the bottom of the Settings screen).  On the left-nav, click "Users".  On the detail side, click "Trust this PC" (or if not available, "Verify this user". 

- Once this is done, logout and back in with this account.
- Start the Windows 8.1 install.

Steps: A Live Account Does Not Exist:
If a second account does not exist or you do not have a Windows Live account, create one now.

1.  From your current local (non Microsoft account), use Control Panel, Users. 
Create a new user.

Make this a Microsoft Live account, (do not create a local machine account).  When creating the account, you must use a legitimate email address and a legitimate phone.

2.  From the main Windows 8 Tile screen, click the profile-picture in the upper-right and login as the new account.  This creates the profile, but this profile does not have enough rights to install.  

3.  Sadly, you must logout as this user and log back in with the original Local Administrator's account.

4.  Open Control Panel, Users.  "Change Other Account."  Modify the newly-built Windows Live user.  Using the steps from the top of this article, promote this user from a "Standard User" to "Administrator." 

5.  Even more saddness:  Logout and re-Login as the new Windows Live user.

6.  Open the Charms Menu, choose "Settings".  Click the "Change PC Settings" (link, bottom of charm menu).  This will open into a new Metro-style Settings Screen.

6a.  On Left-nav, click "Users"  (user accounts)
6b.  On detail side, just under your profile picture, click "Trust this PC".  Notice, you have to "Trust this PC" while using a Windows Live account and the Internet must be active.  This is different than validating your copy of Windows.  If the PC has already been trusted, you may see a "Verify User"; click this instead.

Microsoft will send a text message to your Windows Live registered phone number or will verify with the registered email (this is why you can't fake this).  If it sends a text message, type the last four digits of your phone, when prompted.  Then, from the text message, type the 7-digit authentication number, as sent.  This confirms the trust.

7.  Return to the App Store.  Windows 8.1 should install.

Practically speaking, if you want to update any apps in the app store, you will have to use the Live Account.  Microsoft is forcing you to register and login your desktop.

You do not know the Administrator's account / password

Recover the password online by re-setting your Windows Live Password.  From another machine or another account with access to the internet, go to this link:

An email will be sent.  (This assumes your administrator account is a Windows Live account and not a local machine account and assumes you can get to your email account from a browser via webmail.)

Other Possible Issues:

If your Windows 8 was originally installed from these sources, using the Store to update will fail.

Windows 8 Enterprise  (See your system Administrator for the update)
Windows 8 Volume Licensing (See your system admin)
Windows 8 MSDN or Technet (download a new ISO and install from scratch)
Windows 8 Preview

Your comments on this article are welcome.

Related Articles:
Delete Windows.old folder after upgrading to 8.1 - saves about 4G of disk space.

Friday, November 8, 2013

Delete Windows.old after upgrading to 8.1

How to: Delete Windows.old directory after upgrading to Windows 8.1

After doing an in-place upgrade from Windows 8.0 to 8.1, File Explorer will not delete the Windows.old folder and prompts for numerous security permissions.

Only perform these steps if you no longer need the 'Windows.old' folder and have recovered all old documents from the previous Windows version.  The Users (user profiles and their associated Documents, Music and Video folders) will also be deleted.  In other words, if you are still opening the "Windows.old" folder to retrieve files, backup or move that data first.

Delete the folder using File Explorer's Disk Cleanup utility

1.  Launch File Explorer (from Desktop, click File Explorer or from the Start Menu charm-menu, click "Search", type "file explorer".

2.  On the Tree-side, locate "This PC"  (aka, "my computer")
     Other-mouse-click the C: drive, choose "Properties"

3.  Click "Disk Cleanup"; this will take a few moments to load.
4.  Click "Cleanup System Files"  (this will take another few moments to load)

Click for larger view; "X" to return

5.  In the check-box list, click "[x] Previous Windows Installations"

6.  In the [More Options] tab, not illustrated here, I also recommend clicking System Restore and Shadow Copies "Clean up".  When prompted "Are you sure you want to delete all but the most recent restore point?", click "Delete"

7.  Click OK and confirm Delete files.

Windows.old will be removed, freeing up about 4G of disk space.

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Microsoft SystemSweeper - Antivirus

Windows Defender Offline (formerly Microsoft Security Essentials - MSE ).  A bootable CD for cleaning viruses.  Updated 2013.11. 

This article has been retired.  See this up-to-date Keyliner article:
Keyliner - Virus Cleanup Steps


When cleaning viruses, it is best to boot from a non-infected disk in order to do the cleanup and the easiest way to do this is to boot from bootable CD.  Microsoft and other vendors now have free, bootable CD's, that clean even the most stubborn viruses. Because you are booting from a guaranteed, non-infected operating system, and because it has full-control of the hard drive, with no locked or in-use files, it gets unprecedented access to the disk and it can clean the most stubborn infections.

Building and using bootable CDs are easy and reliable. If your machine is infected, I now recommend running these utilities prior to any other virus scanning steps.  You should run these utilities from multiple vendors.


1.  Build bootable CD's from a non-infected computer.
2.  Build the disks when needed; old disks are obsolete.
3.  If offered to build a CD vs a bootable USB drive, use the CD (Viruses can re-infect USB).

4.  Build CD's from each vendor, below. Some vendors can catch viruses that other vendors miss.
5.  With each vendor's program, cancel the default quick scan and run full-scans. These are time-consuming, taking several hours each.

6.  When done with bootable disks, launch Windows and then download and run this utility:

Download MalwareBytes: Malwarebytes
Run the Free Version.
If offered to install a Demo "Pro" version; decline and run the free (optionally, buy the professional version).  This scan will take several hours.

7.  Then download and run this additional Microsoft Utility from within Windows as a double-check:


If you have a newer Windows 8 or 8.1 with a UEFI disk, the CD's from non-Microsoft vendors will not work and I do not have a good work-around.  (UEFI are security-enabled BIOS boot drives and bootable CD's cannot reach them - at least as near as I can tell.) 

To see if you have a UEFI disk, boot into the BIOS and look at the boot system.  Alternately, load Control Panel, Administrative Tools, Computer Management.  On left-Nav, open Storage, "Disk Management" - wait a few moments.  Hover mouse over the Disk 0 partitions, looking for an "EFI System Partition".

Download and build CDs from each recommended vendor:

A.  Download Microsoft Security Essentials - MSE

For Windows 7, Vista, Windows XP:

For Windows 8, 8.1 and newer,

- Use Microsoft's Internet Explorer to download
- Always download and use the latest version
- It will build the CD automatically; follow the on-screen prompts or see the steps below.
- Most Windows 8, 7 and Vista users should choose the 64-bit version.
- XP users should choose the 32-bit version

B.  Download Kaspersky Lab's "Rescue Disk"

This will not work on UEFI disks.

- Click the Download Kaspersky Rescue Disk link.
- This will write an ISO file, which is a CD disk image.
- From Windows 7, follow these steps to write the ISO file to a CD.

C.  Download AVG Rescue CD

This will not work on Windows 8.x UEFI disks.

- Click the AVG Rescue CD Free Download link; download the ISO version.
- See these keyliner steps to write the ISO file to a CD.

MSE Easy Steps: Build the CD

1. Preferably, from a non-infected computer, click the link above and choose the 64-bit or 32-bit version, depending on what OS was installed on the infected machine. If in doubt of the version, see Microsoft's documentation in the linked page. In general, unless you know otherwise, use these:

32-bit for Windows XP
64-bit for Windows 7 - most likely
32 or 64 for Vista; could be either; try the 32-bit

The download is a small stub called msstoolxx.exe where xx=64 or 32.

2. Save the download-exe to a known location on your disk.
3. Open the folder where you downloaded and run the executable.

This builds the image and it will take about 30 minutes, depending on your Internet connection speed. You will be prompted to build either a CDR, USB thumbdrive. I recommend the CD because not all machines can boot from a USB thumb-drive. The image-build is automatic.

Ideally, build the image from a non-infected computer, but if this is not possible, try from the infected machine. If you are downloading from an infected computer, rename the downloaded EXE to a random name before running because you know the viruses will figure this out and will try to stop you.

Using the Image:

Insert the CD and boot the computer, choosing "Boot from CD" when prompted.
The scan will take several hours, depending on the size of the disk. The process is completely automatic.

If your machine does not boot from CD

Summary: Cold-boot the computer and enter the BIOS configuration screens (hardware/BIOS settings, often pressing F2 or F10 as the machine boots). In the BIOS menus, change the "Boot order", allowing the CD to boot before the hard disk. Save the configuration change (typically with an F10=save) and try booting again.

See this Keyliner article for additional details. Booting from a CD or DVD

Caveats to Think About
  • Download and build the bootable image when needed. Old copies are obsolete. Microsoft continuously updates the CD with the latest virus signatures. Because it is a CD, it cannot update itself.
  • It can only clean viruses that Windows Defender knows about. If it fails to clean the infection, consider re-building this same disk a few days later. Microsoft updates their virus signatures several times per day.  Consider the steps in this keyliner article: Removing Win7 Anti-Virus
  • None of these products replace the need for real-time virus scanning.  See Microsoft Security Essentials

Final comments:

If you have read my previous articles on these topics, cleaning a virus while running on an already-infected machine is like fixing a car's engine while driving. While the infection rages, you have to trick the computer while cleaning and the steps are difficult and vary, depending on the virus.

Booting from a guaranteed-clean operating system is an ideal way to catch a virus. The virus is completely disabled during the scan and Microsoft has full-control of the system. I wish all virus-scanning vendors could use this same design - it vastly simplifies the process.

Once cleaned (and presumably the machine is useable), I still highly recommend running other virus tools, such as MalwareBytes and SuperAntiSpyware to double-check. As much as I like MSE, no single virus scanner catches all the bugs. If you have one virus, you have others and you will have to run multiple tools to make sure.  See the related articles, below, for the steps on how to use these other programs.

Multiple Scanners:
Do not leave multiple scanners installed at the same time.  I recommend using Windows Security Essentials (Microsoft's free real-time virus scanner).  On several machines that I have worked on, both MSE and the heavily-advertised Mcafee Security Scan Plus (free) are running on the same machine and has caused numerous problems.  Uninstall one or the other.

With this thought, if your machine was running Windows Defender and you were still infected, then Microsoft's offline virus scanner may not help because it missed it in the first place. But I still believe MSE is one of the best tools on the market -- and it is free.
Technical Note:
The bootable image loads a run-time copy of Windows. Unfortunately, the bootable image does not allow you to do anything else. You won't be able to copy data files or run other virus scanning products. It would be neat if you could run other cleanup tools, but Microsoft locked this down. Hopefully, they will re-consider this.

Related Products:

Microsoft is also distributing a related product called "Microsoft Safety Scanner". This is a single executable that does not need to be installed and you might be able to run this when no other program will work. However, this design is not as good as the bootable version described earlier in this article. If you have a netbook without a CD, this may be worth a try. The Scanner (msert.exe) is only valid for 12 days, then it expires. This forces everyone to download the latest and greatest version.

Related articles:
Microsoft Security Essentials
Removing Win32 Cryptor
Removing Win7 Anti-Virus - Recommended steps for all viruses
Removing Personal Security Virus
Securing Windows 7 from your Children
Booting from a CD / DVD

Other recommended virus scanners:
MalwareBytes: Malwarebytes

SuperAntiSpyware: superAntiSpyware
Choose the Free Edition. Despite its suspicious name, this is a legitimate program.
Rename to xxSuperAntiSpyware.exe before running.

Interesting article on spear-phishing attack: